Original scientific paper
Comparison of self -sufficiency of selected types of meat in the Visegrad countries
2016, 17 (3) p. 793-814
This article compares the rate of self-sufficiency of selected types of meat (beef, pork, and poultry) in the Visegrad countries. The data are obtained from Eurostat and from national statistical offices of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The rate of self-sufficiency is evaluated for the time period 2003 - 2013 and its results are compared to trade coverage ratio that indicates competitiveness of country in given commodity. Degree of self-sufficiency is an important indicator of country's ability to meet demand of domestic supply. From the obtained results, it can be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to self-sufficiency significantly deteriorated after EU accession, especially in the area of pork and poultry. The self-sufficiency for pork meat decreased to 57% and to 73% in the case of poultry. The situation is quite stable for beef. However beef creates only a small portion of the Czech consumption. A similar situation can be observed in Slovakia, its degree of self-sufficiency of pork and poultry declined down to 53% and 78% respectively. To cover production of poultry and pork from national resources in both countries, production would need to increase by millions of swine and chicken, which may be complicated with respect to existing infrastructure. The production of beef, poultry and pork is sufficient in Poland, production covers consumption. Self-sufficiency in beef increased above 400% mainly due to decline in beef consumption. Since 2009, self-sufficiency in pork has slightly risen and in 2013 it reached 117%. Consumption and production of poultry is on the rise, poultry become a substitute to beef; processing industry doubled its output between 2003 and 2013. Also Hungary, similarly to Poland, is able to cover domestic consumption by domestic production. The self-sufficiency in the case of poultry meat reach 170%, which is positively reflected in the trade balance. Between 2003 and 2013, the rate of self-sufficiency in pork meat fluctuates between 105 and 120%. The trade balance in beef is balanced and correlated with the degree of self-sufficiency moving slightly above 100%.