Original scientific paper
Effect of fertilization on biological activity of community of soil streptomycetes
2016, 17 (4) p. 1134-1149
The search for new natural mechanisms to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was determination of antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes isolated from agricultural soil, which was fertilized mainly by organic fertilizers, against 8 selected phytopathogenic strains. Among the actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied, because they have been recognized as an important source of secondary metabolites, which can suppress the growth of undesirable pests in crops. The results indicated that the richest source of Streptomyces colonies was soil fertilized with compost (103 x104 CFU*g-1 dry soil). On the basis of morphological signs, total of 65 isolates were selected and examined for antimicrobial activities. Isolates exhibited the best activity against Gram negative bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, disease agent of “ring rot” of potatoes and against fungus Fusarium poae, disease agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat. Twelve isolates exhibited promising broad-spectrum activity against tested organisms. On the basis of results, six of them were selected for further screening. Comparison of polyphasic studies with available literature led to identification of biological active strains S. olivochromogenes (13SC11), S. avermitilis (13SC2), S. rishiriensis (13SC13), S. globisporus (13SC19), S. sampsonii (13SPC10) and S. avidinii (13SPC4). After quantification analysis of various enzymes, tested isolates produced alkaline phosphatase, leucinearylamidase, valinearylamidase, acid phosphatase, naphtol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, glucosidase in high values (>40 nmol) and were positive for nitrate reduction, hydrolysis of gelatin, urease, and esculin. These isolates can be used in the development of new biopesticides anf biofertilizers with antibacterial and antifungal effect.