Original scientific paper
Reproduction impact of mancozeb on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) and accumulation of its carcinogen metabolite, ethylene thiourea in fish products
2017, 18 (2) p. 369-387
Pesticides can be taken up from the water and accumulated in tissues of hydrobionts, often becoming multiplied thousands of times higher in the organism than in the surrounding water. The dithiocarbamate mancozeb is applied in plant protection as fungicide. In recent years the amount of mancozeb used in Europe significantly increased. It is carcinogen due to its metabolite - ethylene thiourea (ETU), which causes thyroid and pituitary tumors. The purpose of this study is to determinate the quantity of ethylene thiourea in products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.), reared in environment containing permissible, according to the European law, amount of mancozeb. Seeking an answer to the question: is this concentration limit really safe for the reproduction of rainbow trout and can the more toxic metabolite - ETU, be accumulated in the fish eggs and fillet and afterwards make them harmful to the consumers? The study included 3 stages: feeding, analysis of ethylene thiourea in fish eggs and fillet by a new developed and validated HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method and study of the reproductive indicators. The assays of ETU in all analyzed samples (fish and water) were below the limit of quantification of the method, 0.05 mg*l-1, so fish do not accumulate the carcinogen degradation product of mancozeb and the maximum residue level of mancozeb is really safe for the humans as consumers. But these environmental conditions caused reproductive disorders. They can be partly compensated by using sperm activation medium for artificial insemination of trout eggs, but successful fertilization does not guarantee successful hatching, especially of eggs in trout farms with presence of mancozeb in water, even in allowable concentration. The presented results confirm previous investigation, that Salmonidae are very sensitive fish species, react to the lowest deviations in concentration levels of xenobiotics and are used for indicator of non-polluted water.