Symptoms and management of grapevine trunk diseases
2019, 20 (3) p. 876-890
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) are the most complex fungal diseases currently known on grapevine and according to current knowledge, they are caused by more than 130 species of fungi from different taxonomic classification, whose advance in the perennial wood leads to development of various symptoms that deteriorate grape quality and yield. These diseases lead to a significant shortening of vineyard longevity if not managed promptly after planting or even in planting material production. Numerous studies conducted over the last few years, which are related to GTD, have provided an insight into the epidemiology of these diseases and allowed investigation of their management. A unique and effective approach for GTD management, after the development of fungal infections in the perennial wood, is currently still unavailable. In accordance with the aforementioned statements, implementation of preventive measures is the only known path that could decrease GTD incidence, and therefore it should be applied already in the nursery production, carried out during the establishment of the new vineyard, and put up to the maintenance of vineyard production. In circumstances when the disease develops in a greater extent measures that may lower its incidence and severity, as trunk renewal or vine surgery, may be taken into consideration. This paper gives the overview of symptoms of the most common GTD with an emphasis on currently available preventive measures that reduce their spread and development, as well as measures to extend the lifespan and productivity of highly affected vineyards.