Original scientific paper
Comparison of nutritional and technological quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. x Triticum spelta L.)
2018, 19 (2) p. 437-452
Wheat is one of the most important food crop in the world. Gluten proteins represent major protein fraction of the grain and are responsible for unique properties of the dough. The aim of this study was to analyze one genotype of the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one genotype of hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. x Triticum spelta L.) based on protein polymorphism and to compare their nutritional and technological quality. According to Kjeldahl and Golenkov, content of total nitrogen and protein fraction composition of analyzed samples were determined. Higher content of albumins and globulins (26.39%) was detected in hybrid wheat genotype PS Lubica with total nitrogen 2.02% and crude protein content 11.49%. Winter wheat genotype Elinor showed higher content of prolamins and glutelins (70.68%) and higher coefficient of nutritional quality (91.79%) than analyzed hybrid wheat. Higher total content of amino acids was determined in hybrid wheat genotype PS Lubica (122.02 mg*g-1 dry weight). For the separation of glutenin protein subunits, SDS-PAGE method by ISTA was used. On the basis of molecular weight, glutenins were separated in SDS-PAGE into HMW-GS (Elinor 10.7%; PS Lubica 3.78%) and LMW-GS (Elinor 58.4%; PS Lubica 67.28%). Electrophoretic profile of genotype Elinor was 0, 7+9, 5+10 with Glu Score 7 and composition of HMW-GS in genotype PS Lubica was 0, 20, 2+12 with Glu Score 4. According to the results, better nutritional and technological quality was proved in winter wheat genotype Elinor. According to identical results in 5 biological replicates, hybrid wheat genotype PS Lubica was not recommended for bread-making.