Original scientific paper
Adaptive technology of environmentally - friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones
2017, 18 (1) p. 73-94
Modern agronomic technologies must include environmentally- friendly technologies in crop growing. In Kazakhstan, despite its significant potential, environmentallyfriendly farming is underdeveloped with little scientific backing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop and suggest an adaptive technology for cultivation of legumes taking into account existing methodologies for environmentallyfriendly production in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, Northern Kazakhstan. In order to achieve the objectives, the study focused on determination of a complex impact of combination of agroecological conditions (incl. agro- climatic, content of selected heavy metals such as Cu and Zn in soil, weed pressure, etc.), contrasting soil cultivation technology (i.e. traditional vs zero- tillage), nutrient inputs (fertilizers, legume stimulators) and pesticides on growth and productivity of selected legume crops (peas and chickpeas). The overall agroecological and growing conditions were suitable for producing economically- important legume crops (i.e. pea and chickpea), despite the temperature fluctiations and soil moisture shortage. Despite the very low content of N and P in the upper soil layer, the Cu and Zn content was within the Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL) for Kazakhstan, with a low anticipated negative effect on target legume growth. The least number of weeds was recorded by the variant with application of biological preparation Respecta. The targeted legumes were better developed during the growing season under the traditional technology compared to zero- tillage technology, i.e. germination and seed viability, which might be attributed to better utilisation of soil air and improved soil porosity of the soil layer of 0- 20 cm when using traditional technology. Combinations of mineral fertilizer CaSO4 + 2H2O5 with the innoculation promoter Rizotorfin, and Izagry Phosphorus with Rizotorfin may be recommended to farmers. The application of plant inoculation promoter Rizotorfin was more effective when combined with Phosphorus promoter Izagry Phosphorus. This combination i) reduced the time of passing the main phenophases of pea and chickpea, and the overall length of vegetation (in days). It gives farmers an opportunity to apply late sowing, e.g. in the beginning of June and use the higher temperatures during main vegetation period, and ii) had a positive impact on biological productivity of peas and chickpeas, i.e. an increase with percentage compared to control variant. The results have shown that seed inoculation with Rizotorfin (containg Rhizobium bacteria) and additional Phosphorus fertilizers would lead to significant increase of plant productivity, i.e. yield in the conditions of dry climate in Northern Kazakhstan.