Original scientific paper
Influence of different malolactic fermentation techniques on changes in chemical properties and volatile compounds of cv. Teran red wine (Vitis vinifera L.)
2021, 22 (3) p. 582-595
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a complex biochemical process playing an important role in the production of red wines. The main reasons for its implementation are the reduction of titratable acidity and the consequent increase of pH, microbiological stability of wine, and changes in aromatic and sensory properties of wine. The aim of this study was to determine the compatibility of yeast and bacteria used by different malolactic fermentation techniques and their influence on the fermentation duration, concentration of individual organic acids, aroma compounds, and on chemical and sensory properties of Teran wines. The experiment included control treatment (without MLF), spontaneous MLF, induced MLF at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation with simultaneous inoculation of yeast and bacteria (co-inoculation) and induced MLF after alcoholic fermentation (sequential MLF). In the co-inoculation treatment MLF had no negative effect on the alcoholic fermentation kinetic. Alcoholic fermentation was complete in all treatments. Co-inoculation resulted in a significantly shorter duration of the MLF process. In all MLF treatments, significant reduction of titratable acidity and the increase of pH values was noted. Wines of the spontaneous MLF treatment obtained the highest concentration of volatile acidity and ethyl acetate. In all MLF treatments a complete consumption of malic acid and a decrease in concentration of citric acid, total amount of higher alcohols, and acetaldehyde were observed. Furthermore, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl esters, diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol were present in wines from all MLF treatments.